Treatment of nutcracker syndrome with spermatic vein ligation and iliac vein anastomosis: case report of three cases.


Three patients with nutcracker syndrome (NCS) were enrolled in the study. Their clinical symptoms mainly included proteinuria and serious varicocele. Color Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography showed that the patients had constricted abdominal aortas, reduced superior mesenteric artery angles, and thinned left renal veins. Patients then underwent left spermatic vein ligation and iliac vein anastomosis. They were checked three months after their operation, and results showed that their sperms were improved and their proteinuria disappeared. The color Doppler ultrasound showed new cycle pathways. NCS clinical manifestations are complicated, and need combination diagnosis of symptoms and auxiliary examination to determine surgical indications. Ligation of spermatic vein and vein anastomosis can be used to treat NCS.


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